Jo Harper

Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution

Posted by Jo Harper on
River Ecology
Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution

Water pollution is caused when substances accumulate in water sources to an extent in which they become harmful to human beings and animals. A law on the Prevention of pollution was enacted in 1970(Japan) response to the rising rates of water pollution.


The law was enacted to: Prevent pollution on waters such as lakes so as to conserve the environment by controlling effluents discharged from factories and protecting the victims of the hazards brought by such discharges by being compensated by the firm responsible and also a punishment to the firms responsible.

Areas to be controlled

Public water areas such as lakes, rivers, and ponds used for public purposes.


Effluent standards are set in terms of permissible concentrations of each toxic substance in order to protect the environment and human health. Effluent standards are of two types; common national standards and the more strict effluent standards. These standards are set by the Prime Minister’s office order. Features of the Law on the Prevention of water pollution

When I worked on my dissertation I got a law dissertation help which is of the essence to factories and eve household as it enlightens them on ways to prevent and control water pollution by giving them alternatives and also the resources to be able to control water pollution.

The law has been divided into chapters as will be shown below

Chapter 1: The law was enacted for the purpose of preventing and controlling water pollution, protecting and improving the environment and safeguarding human health. This, however, is not applicable to the prevention and control of marine pollution. The relevant departments under the government must also incorporate the protection of the water environment into their plans and adopt ways to prevent such pollution.

Chapter 2: Regulation of discharge of effluent by checking the number of toxic substances in the effluents and also the manner in which it is discharged. This chapter also explains the promotion of measures of domestic wastewater by imparting knowledge on the citizens and also a provision of necessary facilities to reduce the pollution in these areas.

Chapter 3: Monitoring of the conditions of water pollution. This will be done by government bodies such as the chiefs. The conditions of water pollution shall be continuously monitored and the results shall be reported to the Office of the Minister of Environment.

Chapter 4: Compensation for damages. This indicates that in cases where human life or health is damaged as a result of the harmful substances in the discharge of a certain factory, the involved enterprise is liable for compensating those affected from the damage. This will however not apply for cases in which the affected was in charge of the work.

Chapter 5: Penal provisions. Any person who violates the orders issued under the act shall be liable to penal servitude or a fine in accordance with the weight of the crime committed.

History of the Clean Water Act

Posted by Jo Harper on
River Ecology
History of the Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act is majorly the main regulation that concerns water pollution in the United States of America. Its purpose is to help keep the nation’s water bodies in pristine condition, physically, chemically, and biologically.


The United States began its drive to protect its water bodies in 1899 when the Rivers and Harbors Act was passed.

But it was in 1948 that the Federal Water Pollution Control Act became the first major law in the USA to make water pollution a legal issue.

In the early 1970s, however, approximately two-thirds of the United States’ water was dangerous to swim in or fish from. Sewage was being dumped indiscreetly and without any treatment into water bodies.

The law was amended in 1972, amidst increasing consciousness of water pollution amongst the populace and the need to reduce its impact.

1972 amended that dubbed it the CWA:

• Set the primary structure to monitor the release of impurities into the United States’ water bodies.
• Allowed the EPA to create programs to reduce pollution like setting the limits for industrial wastewater.
• Kept the requirements that previously set the standard for water quality and contaminants in surface water bodies.
• Made it clear that releasing of any pollutant or impurity into navigable water bodies from a point source without a permit illegal.
• Used the construction grants program to support the building of sewage treatment plants.

Amendments in the 1980s

In 1981, some of the CWA’s previous legal clauses were changed by amendments. These amendments allowed for the process of granting municipal construction grants to be simplified, which helped with the sewage treatment plants that were constructed under this program.

In 1987, the grants for construction program was replaced with the Clean Water State Revolving Fund. This new program used collaborations between the states and the EPA to take care of water quality needs.

Other laws

As time went on, other laws that were passed affected parts of the CWA. For example, the Great Lakes Critical Programs Act of 1990, Title I, formed some part of the USA-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978.

This law was an agreement between the two nations to reduce the pollution of the Great Lakes and had the EPA set the requirements for water quality of the Great Lakes and implement these requirements on a rigid schedule.

Recent years

In recent years, defining “waters of the United States,” the key name protected by the Clean Water Act, has faced some challenge and debate.

A majority of federal courts and government agencies, from the 70s to the 90s, were very broad in the scope of their interpretation of the Clean Water Act’s jurisdiction.

However, the Supreme Court ruled in the early 2000s that the broad interpretation was too much and that the scope needed a more focused interpretation.

In 2015, a rule on the more focused interpretation was released by the EPA. However, not all parties accepted it.

As at now, all government agencies continue to perform their duties the way they did before the release of the 2015 Rule until February 20, 2020, the date the rule will be applied. Hence the agencies will have more time to properly reassess the definition of “waters of the United States.”

The Clean Water Bill was a major victory in the fight against pollution. It is just one of many steps we need to take to keep our environment clean and healthy.

The Ecological Problems of Rivers

Posted by Jo Harper on
River Ecology
The Ecological Problems of Rivers

At present, many rivers are facing problems due to high pollution. Reasons that contribute to river pollution vary from one factor to another. According to environment protection act, many countries are taking various actions to protect rivers from different types of pollution. Protection of rivers is done according to the cause of the problem.

Industrial pollution

Pollution from industries is the main cause of dirt accumulation in river streams. Waste materials from various industries can act as a cause for the destruction of the biological system in the river. Dying of fishes in lakes and river is a fine example of this kind of river pollution. Deposition of chemical aerosol spray bottles into lakes can act as a cause of serious health hazards.

Apart from river pollution, aerosol bottles containing CFC can also become a cause of ozone depletion in the atmosphere.

Use of pesticides

Pesticide from farmland is a main factor that causes pollution in the river and other waterways. Insecticides containing hazardous chemicals and pesticides driven from farmlands to waterways can create pollution in river beds. Apart from the agricultural field, gasoline pumps near waterways can also act as a cause of pollution in river beds.

Hence it is suggested to reduce the number of petrol pumps near the riverside and other ways. Similar to petrol pumps, construction of large flats near waterways can also create ecology problems of river. So as to avoid pollution, it is advised to build waste water tanks at a concerned distance away from Riverside and other waterways.

Pollution from animal waste

Pollution due to waste products from animals is another source that creates river pollution. For example, bacteria from cow dung can enter into waterways via farmland. This condition can build up the growth of bacteria in waterways and rivers nearby it. At times, pollution can also happen due to the build-up of bacteria due to erosion, cyclone, and flood.

Pollutants from wasteland can enter to the freshwater lakes and rivers due to the occurrence of flood and cyclone. This condition can also lead the way to the growth of bacteria in the river and waterways.

Nuclear waste

Nuclear waste is another source that creates troubles in the ecology of rivers. At present, many people are concerned about the disadvantages of building a nuclear power plant in their locality.

Radioactive materials from a nuclear power plant can create environmental pollution in nearby areas. Hence the construction of nuclear power plants is done with a high-security level that can’t affect the living of people in nearby areas.

Household waste

Household waste is another main cause that can affect the riverbeds and waterways. In order to prevent this condition, people are given proper guidance for the protection of ponds, rivers, and lakes. Pollution from acid rain and the melting of an iceberg can also come as a source of river pollution in countries. This condition generally happens due to change in climatic condition.

Rivers are the source of life for a wide range of species including fishes that consumed by man. Hence it is the duty of people to preserve the ecology of rivers. Usage of pollutants that affect the normal life of species in rivers needs to be reduced so as to prevent it from dying. This factor will also help people to maintain the biological life cycle of species on earth.